Fourteen infants who suffered early localized, unilateral cerebral infarction were studied to examine the neurologic status of these children, to investigate psychomotor, cognitive, and language abilities, and to examine relationships between behavior and lesion severity. The patients underwent a neurologic examination and were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development. Motor development was not significantly delayed despite the presence of hemiparesis in most infants (which correlated with lesion severity). There was no evidence of marked delay in global cognitive functioning but one-half of the children were delayed in psychomotor functioning. Evidence of receptive and/or expressive language delay also was observed in one-half of infants and toddlers.