Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is the best available treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. In a recent series of three consecutive clinical trials using increasing lymphodepletion before infusion of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), objective response rates between 49% and 72% were seen. Persistence of infused cells in the circulation at one month was highly correlated with anti-tumor response as was the mean telomere length of the cells infused and the number of CD8+ CD27+ cells infused. Responses occur at all sites and appear to be durable with many patients in ongoing response beyond three years. In the most recent trial of 25 patients receiving maximum lymphodepletion, seven of the 25 patients (28%) achieved a complete response. Of the 12 patients in the three trials who achieved a complete response all but one are ongoing between 18 and 75 months. We recently demonstrated that ACT using autologous lymphocytes genetically modified to express anti-tumor T cell receptors can mediate tumor regression and this approach is now being applied to patients with common epithelial cancers.