Epidemiology, screening, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2009 Jun;55(2):123-38.

Abstract

Globally, over half a million people develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) each year and an almost equal number die of it. Some aspects of HCC remain disappointingly unchanged. For example, hepatitis B infection, for which an effective safe vaccine has been developed, remains responsible for a substantial proportion of cases worldwide. Further, the overall survival of patients with HCC remains very low. Nevertheless, the past few years have witnessed several important advances in our understanding of risk factors, screening, as well as treatment of HCC; these advances may change some of the current realities for HCC. In this paper, we will review the epidemiology, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC with special emphasis on recent developments such the role of fatty liver disease, obesity, and coffee may play in causing HCC, the recent guidelines in screening and diagnosis, and state-of-the-art treatment algorithms.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy*
  • Catheter Ablation
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods
  • Ethanol / therapeutic use
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Global Health
  • Hepatectomy
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • Liver Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Mass Screening*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives
  • Phenylurea Compounds
  • Population Surveillance*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Pyridines / therapeutic use
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Sorafenib
  • Survival Rate
  • Texas / epidemiology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

Substances

  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Benzenesulfonates
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Phenylurea Compounds
  • Pyridines
  • alpha-Fetoproteins
  • Niacinamide
  • Ethanol
  • Sorafenib