In patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, extended hepatectomy and caudate lobe resection are often performed to achieve an R0 resection. In patients whose standardized future liver remnant is less than or equal to 20% of total liver volume, portal vein embolization (PVE) should be performed. In patients with biliary dilatation of the future liver remnant, a biliary drainage catheter should be placed before PVE. If the planned surgery is an extended right hepatectomy, segment 4 branch embolization improves the hypertrophy of segments 2 and 3. In high-volume centers, PVE can be safely performed; it increases the resectability rate and results in the same survival rates as those in patients who undergo resection without PVE.