Direct genotypic analysis for the common Caucasian cystic fibrosis mutation (delta F508) was performed using dried blood specimens in a filter paper matrix (neonatal screening blotter). DNA was obtained from dried and liquid blood samples, amplified, and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Additionally, intact 4-mm-diameter punched discs from blotters containing dried blood specimen were used in the amplification reactions and analyzed by electrophoresis. The results agreed completely between these three sample types, demonstrating the feasibility of molecular genetic confirmation of the delta F508 mutation from the neonatal screening blotter among those with positive CF screening results. Such a program could reduce follow-up testing by at least 50% in a CF newborn screening program and would identify immediately those families who would benefit from carrier detection for the delta F508 allele.