Tobacco consumption is a major public health problem. More than 20 years ago smoking has been identified to contribute substantially to the degradation of renal function in patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy. Recently it has been shown that smoking alters renal hemodynamics and contributes to albuminuria. Smoking increases the risk of progression of renal failure in patients suffering from IgA nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. Furthermore smoking has a deleterious effect on patients on hemodialysis and on the transplanted kidney. Nonetheless, it is important to realize that smoking not only is deleterious for the progression of vascular and pulmonary diseases, but also has a strong negative effect on kidney function.