Inflammation, hepatic enzymes and resistance training in individuals with metabolic risk factors

Diabet Med. 2009 Mar;26(3):220-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02679.x.


Aims: Increases in inflammatory markers, hepatic enzymes and physical inactivity are associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined whether inflammatory markers and hepatic enzymes are correlated with traditional risk factors for MetS and studied the effects of resistance training (RT) on these emerging risk factors in individuals with a high number of metabolic risk factors (HiMF, 2.9 +/- 0.8) and those with a low number of metabolic risk factors (LoMF, 0.5 +/- 0.5).

Methods: Twenty-eight men and 27 women aged 50.8 +/- 6.5 years (mean +/- sd) participated in the study. Participants were randomized to four groups, HiMF training (HiMFT), HiMF control (HiMFC), LoMF training (LoMFT) and LoMF control (LoMFC). Before and after 10 weeks of RT [3 days/week, seven exercises, three sets with intensity gradually increased from 40-50% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to 75-85% of 1RM], blood samples were obtained for the measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

Results: At baseline, HiMF had higher interleukin-6 (33.9%), CRP (57.1%), GGT (45.2%) and ALT (40.6%) levels, compared with LoMF (all P < 0.05). CRP, GGT and ALT correlated with the number of risk factors (r = 0.48, 0.51 and 0.57, respectively, all P < 0.01) and with other anthropometric and clinical measures (r range from 0.26 to 0.60, P < 0.05). RT did not significantly alter inflammatory markers or hepatic enzymes (all P > 0.05).

Conclusions: HiMF was associated with increased inflammatory markers and hepatic enzyme concentrations. RT did not reduce inflammatory markers and hepatic enzymes in individuals with HiMF.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alanine Transaminase / metabolism*
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Resistance Training*
  • Risk Factors
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase
  • Alanine Transaminase