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Review
. Jan-Feb 2009;35(1):36-46.
doi: 10.1002/biof.8.

Biotin

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Free PMC article
Review

Biotin

Janos Zempleni et al. Biofactors. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin and serves as a coenzyme for five carboxylases in humans. Biotin is also covalently attached to distinct lysine residues in histones, affecting chromatin structure and mediating gene regulation. This review describes mammalian biotin metabolism, biotin analysis, markers of biotin status, and biological functions of biotin. Proteins such as holocarboxylase synthetase, biotinidase, and the biotin transporters SMVT and MCT1 play crucial roles in biotin homeostasis, and these roles are reviewed here. Possible effects of inadequate biotin intake, drug interactions, and inborn errors of metabolism are discussed, including putative effects on birth defects.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Pathways of biotin catabolism.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Biotin-dependent carboxylases. ACC, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; MCC, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase; PC, pyruvate carboxylase; PCC, propionyl-CoA carboxylase.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
The structure of chromatin. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Modification sites in histories H2A, H3, and H4. Ac, acetate; B, biotin; M, methyl; P, phosphate; U, ubiquitin, [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]

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