A cross-sectional, retrospective medical and pharmaceutical claims data analysis was conducted to determine if Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures related to care for chronic conditions differed between enrollees in a traditional comprehensive major medical plan (CMM) and a consumer-directed health plan (CDHP). Eleven HEDIS measures for 2006 were compared for CMM and CDHP enrollees in a health plan. Measures included care for persons with diabetes, asthma, depression, cardiovascular disease, and low back pain, and for persons taking persistent medications for specific conditions. In the CMM population, 1,238,949 members were eligible to be included; 131,763 members in the CDHP population were eligible. Statistical significance testing was performed. As measured by HEDIS, CDHP enrollees received higher quality of care than did CMM enrollees in areas related to low back pain, and eye exams and nephropathy screening for persons with diabetes. No significant differences were found between CDHP enrollees and CMM enrollees for measures describing medication management for persons with depression and asthma, annual monitoring for persons taking persistent medications, cholesterol management for persons with cardiovascular disease, or HbA1c testing and low-density lipoprotein screening for persons with diabetes. Enrollees in CDHPs who have chronic conditions received care at levels of quality equal to or better than CMM enrollees. The potential for increased financial responsibility in the CDHP plan did not appear to deter those enrollees from pursuing necessary care. Future research should control for the demographic factors thought to influence both selection into a plan design and quality of care.