The purpose of this study was to evaluate the micro-shear bond strengths and the etching efficacy of a two-step self-etching adhesive system to fluorosed and non-fluorosed enamel. The extracted teeth, obtained from Australian and Japanese patients, were classified according to the severity of fluorosis, using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov index (TFI). Australian teeth were classified as mildly fluorosed (TFI = 1-3), whereas Japanese teeth were classified as non-fluorosed (TFI = 0). Resin composite was bonded to 20 enamel samples using Clearfil SE bond. The bonded samples were stressed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1) to determine the micro-shear bond strength. To examine the etching efficacy of primer on fluorosed and non-fluorosed enamel, the enamel-surface pH values were directly measured using a micro pH sensor. The non-fluorosed enamel showed significantly higher bond strengths compared with the fluorosed enamel. There was a statistical difference between fluorosed and non-fluorosed enamel regarding the surface pH change before and after application of the Clearfil SE bond primer. The results from this study suggest that water fluoridation has an effect on the acid resistance of enamel surfaces when treated with a two-step self-etching adhesive system and that this effect leads to reduced bond strengths.