Photodynamic therapy mediated by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) has been developed as a therapeutic modality for refractory superficial bladder cancers. Here, in experiments using urothelial cancer cell lines, we investigated the effects of siRNA modulating heme-synthetic and degradation pathways for ALA-PDT. Targeted knockdown of ferrochelatase (FECH) suppressed heme synthesis and significantly increased intracellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation, leading to enhanced phototoxicity in four of five cell lines. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is recognized as important for cytoprotection against oxidative stress such as PDT. Targeted knockdown of HO-1 leads to decreased intracellular PpIX accumulation, resulting in a failure to enhance ALA-PDT effect in four cell lines. Knockdown of HO-1 caused marked growth inhibition in UM-UC-2 overexpressing HO-1, whereas no inhibitory effect was observed in UM-UC-3 lacking HO-1 expression. Moreover, HO-1 protein levels and (GT)n repeat polymorphism of the HO-1 gene promoter region were examined with the implication that the constitutive expressions of HO-1 protein were associated with a shorter (GT)n repeat. Our results suggested that (1) FECH siRNA improved the phototoxicity of ALA-PDT, (2) overexpression of HO-1 was associated with shorter (GT)n repeat of the promoter region, and (3) siRNA-mediated knockdown of HO-1 could suppress the growth of bladder cancer cells overexpressing HO-1.