A MEDLINE search was conducted using the keywords "laparoscopy ovarian cancer," "laparoscopy and borderline ovarian tumors," "advanced stage ovarian cancer," "laparoscopic cytoreduction ovarian cancer," "laparoscopy intraperitoneal catheter," "port-site metastases," and "carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum." The publications were further limited to English-language articles, those addressing adnexal mass management, early stage ovarian cancer, and advanced stage ovarian cancer treatments. The articles were divided into 4 broad categories: adnexal masses, low malignant potential tumors, early stage ovarian cancer, and advanced ovarian cancer. For each category, a further subdivision into case reports, case series, and finally cohorts was developed and summarized. Additional articles were obtained based on the bibliographic cross-reference of the initial articles reviewed. The current literature defining the role of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer is limited to case reports, case series, and cohort studies. However, these limited studies suggest equal efficacy of laparoscopy compared with laparotomy in both early and advanced stage ovarian cancer.