Lung cancer is a particular challenge in oncology. More than 1 million new cases occur worldwide every year and despite many clinical trials and modern diagnostic techniques, long-term survival rate has only marginally improved. The aim of the current research is to explore new molecular prognostic factors and identify new targets for anticancer therapy. Current evidence shows that angiogenesis is controlled by several angiogenic factors including VEGF and BMP-2. It has been also demonstrated that VEGF plays a key role in this process that is essential in carcinogenesis. Our study has shown that the expressions of the VEGF, BMP-2 and BMP-4 mRNAs were significantly higher (7.1-fold, 25.6-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively) in lung cancer samples than in adjacent normal lung tissues (real-time RT-PCR). Analysis based on the Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated the positive correlation between VEGF and BMP-2 gene expression, whereas no significant correlation between VEGF and BMP-4 gene expression was found. The mean+/-standard deviation serum level of VEGF was 423+/-136 pg/ml. Significant differences in the serum levels of VEGF between patients with T1 tumors and patients with T2, T3 or T4 tumors were observed. Patients with T2, T3 and T4 tumors, respectively, had 1.6-fold, 1.8-fold and 2.3-fold greater serum levels of VEGF than their peers with T1 tumors. In current study patients homozygous for the 936T allele of the +936C/T VEGF gene polymorphism had 12-fold lower VEGF gene expression and 1.3-fold lower VEGF serum level than patients homozygous for the 936C allele. In conclusion, our findings underline the importance of the two angiogenic factors namely VEGF and BMP-2 as well as +936C/T VEGF gene polymorphism in the evaluation of lung cancer patients.