Clinical characteristics and four-year outcomes of patients in the Rhode Island Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Registry

Am J Cardiol. 2009 Apr 1;103(7):1015-9. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.12.020. Epub 2009 Feb 7.


The aim was to establish a registry of patients with a diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) to help learn more about the characteristics, treatment strategies, and natural history of this disease. Data for patients with TC diagnosed from July 2004 to April 2008 at 2 major hospitals in Rhode Island were obtained. A data set was created that included baseline demographics and characteristics, hospital, course, and clinical outcomes. TC was diagnosed in 70 patients during the study period. Postmenopausal women comprised 95% of the cohort. Six patients presented with cardiogenic shock, 9 required intubation, 3 experienced sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and 1 patient died of cardiac causes. Average ejection fraction was 37% at cardiac catheterization. Troponin-I was increased in all except 1 patient. Follow-up echocardiography showed full recovery of wall motion abnormalities, with an average ejection fraction of 59%. Most patients were treated using standard cardiovascular medications for acute coronary syndrome, and 43% were discharged on warfarin therapy because of severe apical wall motion abnormalities. Univariate analysis suggested that long-term use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors before the onset of TC was protective against cardiogenic shock, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and death. Consecutive cases grouped into different seasons showed a statistically significant spike in the occurrence of TC during the summer months. In conclusion, the acute phase of this condition may lead to critical illness and death, and use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor may have a protective effect. Overall long-term prognosis and recovery of left ventricular function were excellent.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiac Catheterization / methods*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Recovery of Function / drug effects
  • Recovery of Function / physiology
  • Registries*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rhode Island / epidemiology
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Stroke Volume / physiology
  • Survival Rate / trends
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / diagnosis
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / epidemiology*
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / prevention & control
  • Time Factors
  • Ventricular Function, Left / drug effects
  • Ventricular Function, Left / physiology


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors