Soil-transmitted helminths of the genus Strongyloides (S. fuelleborni and the more prevalent S. stercoralis) are currently believed to infect an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. The health consequences of S. stercoralis infections range from asymptomatic light infections to chronic symptomatic strongyloidiasis. Uncontrolled multiplication of the parasite (hyperinfection) and potentially life-threatening dissemination of larvae to all internal organs is found among individuals with compromised immune system functions. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the art in relation to diagnostic methods for detecting the infection, the morbidity caused by the infection and the recommended treatment. It further discusses some of the reasons why this infection is so neglected and the consequence of this for the estimated global prevalence. The paper finally points to the gaps in our knowledge and future research needs related to this infection. As Strongyloides infections have the potential to develop into severe disease in certain population subgroups, untreated infections could cause serious problems in the community. Therefore, we need to carefully investigate this parasite in order to develop and implement effective control programmes.