Motivation, money and respect: a mixed-method study of Tanzanian non-physician clinicians

Soc Sci Med. 2009 Jun;68(11):2078-88. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.03.007. Epub 2009 Mar 28.


Poor quality of care is a major concern in low-income countries, and is in part attributed to low motivation of healthcare workers. Non-physician clinicians (mid-level cadre healthworkers) are central to healthcare delivery in half of the countries in Africa, but while much is expected from these clinicians, little is known about their expectations and motivation to perform well. Understanding what motivates these healthworkers in their work is essential to provide an empirical base for policy decisions to improve quality of healthcare. In 2006-2007, we conducted a mixed-method study to evaluate factors affecting motivation, including reasons for varying levels of motivation, amongst these clinicians in Tanzania. Using a conceptual framework of 'internal' and 'environmental' domains known to influence healthworker motivation in low-income countries, developed from existing literature, we observed over 2000 hospital consultations, interviewed clinicians to evaluate job satisfaction and morale, then designed and implemented a survey instrument to measure work motivation in clinical settings. Thematic analysis (34 interviews, one focus group) identified social status expectations as fundamental to dissatisfaction with financial remuneration, working environments and relationships between different clinical cadres. The survey included all clinicians working in routine patient care at 13 hospitals in the area; 150 returned sufficiently complete data for psychometric analysis. In regression, higher salary was associated with 'internal' motivation; amongst higher earners, motivation was also associated with higher qualification and salary enhancements. Salary was thus a clear prerequisite for motivation. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that non-salary motivators will only have an effect where salary requirements are satisfied. As well as improvements to organisational management, we put forward the case for the professionalization of non-physician clinicians.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Allied Health Personnel / economics*
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation*
  • Psychometrics
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care / economics*
  • Reimbursement, Incentive*
  • Salaries and Fringe Benefits
  • Tanzania
  • Young Adult