Acute effects of an alternative electronic-control-device waveform in swine

Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2009;5(1):2-10. doi: 10.1007/s12024-009-9076-x. Epub 2009 Mar 28.


In previous studies, repeated 5-s exposures of anesthetized pigs to an electronic control device (TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 device) resulted in acidosis and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of longer continuous exposures to a different electronic-control-device waveform. After intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl, anesthesia was maintained with propofol infusion. Ten pigs were exposed to either 30- or 60-s applications of an electronic waveform similar to the TASER-X26 device. Transient increases in potassium, and sodium were consistent with previous reports in the literature dealing with studies of muscle stimulation or exercise. Blood pH was significantly decreased after exposure, but subsequently returned to baseline levels. Lactate was highly elevated and remained somewhat increased even after three hrs. Serum myoglobin was increased after exposure and remained elevated for the 3-h follow-up period. Acidosis would appear to be one of the major concerns with long-duration (e.g., several min) exposures over a short period of time. Even with the extremely low pH immediately after exposure, all animals survived. On the basis of these results, further development of useful continuous-exposure electronic control devices is at least feasible, with the caveat that some medical monitoring of subjects may be required.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Chemical Analysis
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Carbon Dioxide / blood
  • Creatine Kinase / blood
  • Electroshock / instrumentation*
  • Forensic Medicine
  • Heart Rate
  • Hematocrit
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Myoglobin / blood
  • Oxygen / blood
  • Potassium / blood
  • Respiration
  • Sodium / blood
  • Sus scrofa
  • Time Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Myoglobin
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Lactic Acid
  • Sodium
  • Creatine Kinase
  • Potassium
  • Oxygen