Coupled calcium and zinc dyshomeostasis and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria of rats with chronic aldosteronism

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 May;53(5):414-23. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181a15e77.


A dyshomeostasis of extra- and intracellular Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) occurs in rats receiving chronic aldosterone/salt treatment (ALDOST). Herein, we hypothesized that the dyshomeostasis of intracellular Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) is intrinsically coupled that alters the redox state of cardiac myocytes and mitochondria, with Ca(2+) serving as a pro-oxidant and Zn(2+) as an antioxidant. Toward this end, we harvested hearts from rats receiving 4 weeks of ALDOST alone or cotreatment with either spironolactone (Spiro), an aldosterone receptor antagonist, or amlodipine (Amlod), an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, and from age/sex-matched untreated controls. In each group, we monitored cardiomyocyte [Ca(2+)]i and [Zn(2+)]i and mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]m and [Zn(2+)]m; biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses; expression of Zn transporters, Zip1 and ZnT-1; metallothionein-1, a Zn(2+)-binding protein; and metal response element transcription factor-1, a [Zn(2+)]i sensor and regulator of antioxidant defenses. Compared with controls, at 4-week ALDOST, we found the following: (a) increased [Ca(2+)]i and [Zn(2+)]i, together with increased [Ca(2+)]m and [Zn(2+)]m, each of which could be prevented by Spiro and attenuated with Amlod; (b) increased levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in cardiomyocytes, together with increased H(2)O(2) production, malondialdehyde, and oxidized glutathione in mitochondria that were coincident with increased activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase; and (c) increased expression of metallothionein-1, Zip1 and ZnT-1, and metal response element transcription factor-1, attenuated by Spiro. Thus, an intrinsically coupled dyshomeostasis of intracellular Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) occurs in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria in rats receiving ALDOST, where it serves to alter their redox state through a respective induction of oxidative stress and generation of antioxidant defenses. The importance of therapeutic strategies that can uncouple these two divalent cations and modulate their ratio in favor of sustained antioxidant defenses is therefore suggested.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aldehydes / metabolism
  • Aldosterone / pharmacology
  • Amlodipine / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Calcium / deficiency
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Metallothionein / metabolism
  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Mitochondria, Heart / drug effects
  • Mitochondria, Heart / metabolism*
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / drug effects*
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress* / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Spironolactone / pharmacology
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Tyrosine / metabolism
  • Zinc / deficiency
  • Zinc / metabolism*


  • Aldehydes
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
  • Amlodipine
  • Spironolactone
  • 3-nitrotyrosine
  • Tyrosine
  • Aldosterone
  • Metallothionein
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Zinc
  • 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
  • Calcium