To highlight the societal burden of HBV infection in South Korea, we estimated the annual societal costs of HBV-related diseases for the year 2005. For the economic costs of HBV-infection-related diseases estimate, baseline data was collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database. To complement data from the HIRA database, hospital charts from sample hospitals was reviewed and patient surveys were conducted. In 2005, the societal cost of HBV infection was 1.937 trillion KRW, including 474,642 million KRW of direct costs and 1.463 trillion KRW of indirect costs. The cost breakdown by disease was CHB at 465,167 million KRW, cirrhosis at 533,449 million KRW, hepatocellular carcinoma at 863,940 million KRW, and liver transplantation at 74,635 million KRW. The estimated amount is equivalent to 0.24% of the 2005 Korean GDP. This analysis emphasizes how important the prevention and treatment of these diseases are from the perspectives of the Korean society.