Psychosocial adjustment in adolescent cancer survivors has been documented to be quite variable. Factors mediating adjustment need to be identified. The current study is an exploration of the impact that cancer diagnosis and treatment has on adolescent's self-perceptions and the role this has in mediating adjustment in this group. Fifty-eight adolescent survivors of hematologic malignancies were interviewed about alterations in self-perceptions related to their cancer experience and completed a cancer-specific social problem-solving task. Initial findings suggest that cancer universally alters the way adolescent survivors view themselves, but that the alteration can be both positive or negative depending on the meaning ascribed to it.