CXCL12-mediated induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human CXCR4 positive astroglioma cells

Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Apr;32(4):573-7. doi: 10.1248/bpb.32.573.


Glioblastoma is the most malignant and common brain tumor. To promote their growth, these glioma cells secrete a variety of soluble factors including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which functions as an inhibitor of plasminogen activators. We report here with the basis of microarray gene expression analysis that CXCR4 expressing glioma cells are capable of expressing PAI-1 mRNA and protein upon CXCL12 stimulation. Pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) 1/2, abrogated CXCL12-induced PAI-1 expression. Pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Galpha(i) proteins, also had inhibitory effects, indicating that the activation of Galpha(i) and ERK MAPK are required for this response. Interestingly, CXCL12 showed additive effects with another PAI-1 inducers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and/or tumor growth factor (TGF)-beta1, in increasing PAI-1 expression. These results indicate that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in glioma cells may be another mechanism for these cells to express PAI-1, which may be involved in angiogenesis and tumor invasion in brain tumors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Astrocytoma / metabolism*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Brain Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Chemokine CXCL12 / physiology*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / physiology
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / metabolism
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / physiology
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Indicators and Reagents
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / physiology
  • Nuclease Protection Assays
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / physiology
  • Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / biosynthesis*
  • RNA, Complementary / biosynthesis
  • RNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Receptors, CXCR4 / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / pharmacology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology


  • CXCR4 protein, human
  • Chemokine CXCL12
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Indicators and Reagents
  • Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • RNA, Complementary
  • Receptors, CXCR4
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go