Fifty years of the Millard rotation-advancement: looking back and moving forward

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Apr;123(4):1364-1377. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31819e26a5.


Of all the methods for repair of the unilateral cleft lip, none has gained as much popularity as the rotation-advancement. Millard's original principle of 50 years ago continues to guide surgeons in closure of the cleft lip. Unlike earlier procedures, the brilliance of the rotation-advancement is that it permits individual manipulation and modifications while maintaining Millard's original surgical and anatomical goals. Millard and many other surgeons have made modifications to adjust the procedure to each specific patient, to address some of its faults, and to gain new advantages. In this article, the authors review the techniques of Drs. Ralph Millard, Steve Byrd, Court Cutting, John Mulliken, and Samuel Stal. The variations from Millard's original technique are highlighted, including a discussion of the benefits of each modification.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Cleft Lip / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods*
  • Preoperative Care
  • Surgical Flaps
  • Time Factors