Shoulder injuries in the throwing athlete

J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Apr;91(4):966-78. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.H.01341.


Pathologic conditions in the shoulder of a throwing athlete frequently represent a breakdown of multiple elements of the shoulder restraint system, both static and dynamic, and also a breakdown in the kinetic chain. Physical therapy and rehabilitation should be, with only a few exceptions, the primary treatment for throwing athletes before operative treatment is considered. Articular-sided partial rotator cuff tears and superior labral tears are common in throwing athletes. Operative treatment can be successful when nonoperative measures have failed. Throwing athletes who have a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit have a good response, in most cases, to stretching of the posteroinferior aspect of the capsule.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Baseball / injuries*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Humans
  • Physical Therapy Modalities
  • Shoulder Injuries*
  • Shoulder Joint / physiology