Targeted electrode-based modulation of neural circuits for depression

J Clin Invest. 2009 Apr;119(4):717-25. doi: 10.1172/JCI38454.


During the last 20 years of neuroscience research, we have witnessed a fundamental shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric disorders, with the dominant psychological and neurochemical theories of the past now complemented by a growing emphasis on developmental, genetic, molecular, and brain circuit models. Facilitating this evolving paradigm shift has been the growing contribution of functional neuroimaging, which provides a versatile platform to characterize brain circuit dysfunction underlying specific syndromes as well as changes associated with their successful treatment. Discussed here are converging imaging findings that established a rationale for testing a targeted neuromodulation strategy, deep brain stimulation, for treatment-resistant major depression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Depression / physiopathology
  • Depression / therapy*
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods*
  • Electrodes
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Models, Neurological
  • Nerve Net / physiopathology
  • Positron-Emission Tomography


  • Antidepressive Agents