The Drosophila roughened mutation: activation of a rap homolog disrupts eye development and interferes with cell determination

Cell. 1991 Nov 15;67(4):717-22. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90066-8.


Roughened is a dominant mutation of D. melanogaster that disrupts eye development. The majority of the ommatidia in the adult eye lack a single photoreceptor cell, which is most commonly the R7 cell. The Roughened mutation disrupts the early stages of photoreceptor cell determination. Roughened is a dominant gain-of-function mutation that results from a single amino acid change (Phe157 to Leu) in the Drosophila Rap1 protein. Loss of function Rap1 mutations are lethal. Drosophila Rap1 protein is 88% identical to human rap1A/K-rev1 protein, a putative antagonist of ras action.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Drosophila melanogaster / embryology*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / genetics
  • Eye / embryology*
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Genes, Dominant
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Sequence Alignment
  • rap GTP-Binding Proteins


  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • rap GTP-Binding Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M80535
  • GENBANK/M80539
  • GENBANK/S60911
  • GENBANK/S60914
  • GENBANK/S60917
  • GENBANK/S60919
  • GENBANK/S60920
  • GENBANK/S60969
  • GENBANK/S61522
  • GENBANK/S61524