2D gel-based proteome and phosphoproteome analysis during larval metamorphosis in two major marine biofouling invertebrates

J Proteome Res. 2009 Jun;8(6):2708-19. doi: 10.1021/pr800976u.


Larvae of some benthic invertebrates respond (metamorphose or not) to chemical cues within minutes or hours and often without excessive transcription or translation. Although protein phosphorylation is one of the most important molecular switching mechanisms that govern variety of rapid cellular responses in higher organisms, this is the first study to analyze the global protein expression and protein phosphorylation status during larval metamorphosis in two major marine biofouling invertebrates (a bryozoan Bugula neritina and a barnacle Balanus amphitrite). Results indicate that larval proteomic response to metamorphosis (inhibiton or induction) involves substantial change in the phosphorylation status of proteins rather than de novo protein synthesis. An abundantly expressed and an unnamed phosphoprotein that appears to play key regulatory role in larval metamorphosis was identified. When larvae of bryozoan and barnacle were challenged with a metamorphosis (and kinase) inhibitor, the genistein, the number of phosphoproteins in bryozoan were substantially reduced but drastically increased in barnacle. Taken together, this is the first time that the usefulness of employing 2DE-based proteomic and phosphoproteomic approaches was demonstrated for us to understand the molecular mechanisms of larval metamorphosis and to study the mode-of-action of chemical cues in marine organisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bryozoa / growth & development*
  • Bryozoa / metabolism
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Genistein / pharmacology
  • Larva / metabolism
  • Metamorphosis, Biological* / drug effects
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism*
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Proteome / metabolism*
  • Proteomics / methods*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Thoracica / growth & development*
  • Thoracica / metabolism


  • Phosphoproteins
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Proteome
  • Genistein