Mitochondrial haplogroup U2d phylogeny and distribution

Hum Biol. 2008 Oct;80(5):565-71. doi: 10.3378/1534-6617-80.5.565.


The sequencing of the entire mitochondrial DNA belonging to haplogroup U2d reveals that this clade is defined by four coding-region mutations at positions 1700, 4025, 11893, and 14926. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that western Eurasian haplogroup U2d appears to be a sister clade with the Indo-Pakistani haplogroup U2c. Results of a phylogeographic analysis of published population data on the distribution of haplogroup U2d indicate that the presence of such mtDNA lineages in Europe may be mostly a consequence of medieval migrations of nomadic tribes from the Caucasus and eastern Europe to central Europe.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics*
  • Emigration and Immigration
  • Europe, Eastern
  • Genetics, Population / statistics & numerical data*
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Phylogeny*


  • DNA, Mitochondrial