In an effort to study the interaction between MSCs and osteosarcoma, we established an animal model of primary osteosarcoma in nude mice using Saos-2 cells. hMSCs, labeled with adv-GFP, were injected through the caudal vein. We observed that exogenous hMSCs targeted the osteosarcoma site and promoted its growth and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we employed transwell, neutralization antibody and MTT assays in vitro. hMSCs migrated toward the conditioned medium from Saos-2 cells, and SDF-1 was involved in this migration. Likewise, Saos-2 cells migrated toward the conditioned medium from hMSCs and CCL5 played an important role in this migration. Furthermore, proliferation of Saos-2 cells was enhanced by the conditioned medium from hMSCs and CCL5 was at least partly responsible for this enhancement.