Biological effects of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis

Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;112(1):c9-15. doi: 10.1159/000210569. Epub 2009 Apr 3.


Background/aims: The application of electrolyzed water (EW) at the cathode side to manufacture reverse osmosis (RO) water and hemodialysis (HD) solution can actually lead to less oxidative capacity in chemical terms. The present study examined the biological actions of this water on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and the clinical feasibility of applying this technology to HD treatment.

Methods: RO water using EW (e-RO) exhibited less chemiluminescence in luminol-hydrogen peroxide and higher dissolved hydrogen levels (-99.0 ppb) compared with control RO water. The effects of e-RO on PMN viability were tested. HD using e-RO was performed for 12 consecutive sessions in 8 patients for the feasibility test.

Results: Basal cellular viability and function to generate superoxide radicals of PMNs were better preserved by e-RO application. In the clinical trial, reductions of blood pressure were noted, but no adverse events were observed. There were no changes in the blood dialysis parameters, although methylguanidine levels were significantly decreased at the end of study.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the capacity of e-RO to preserve the viability of PMNs, and the clinical feasibility of applying this water for HD treatment. The clinical application of this technology may improve the bio-compatibility of HD treatment.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cytochromes c / metabolism
  • Electrodes
  • Electrolysis*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Hemodialysis Solutions / analysis
  • Hemodialysis Solutions / pharmacology*
  • Hemodynamics / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Luminescent Measurements
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neutrophils / drug effects
  • Neutrophils / metabolism
  • Osmosis
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Pyruvaldehyde / blood
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Respiratory Burst / drug effects
  • Superoxides / metabolism
  • Water / chemistry
  • Water / pharmacology*


  • Hemodialysis Solutions
  • Water
  • Superoxides
  • Pyruvaldehyde
  • Cytochromes c