Blocking AMPA receptor signalling by caroverine infusion does not affect counter-regulation of hypoglycaemia in healthy men

Diabetologia. 2009 Jun;52(6):1192-6. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1343-6. Epub 2009 Apr 3.


Aims/hypothesis: Glutamatergic pathways are assumed to play a critical role in the hormonal stress response to hypoglycaemia. In rats, glutamate signalling at the amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazol propionate (AMPA) receptor contributes to hormone release induced by behavioural stressors. We hypothesised that blocking the AMPA receptor by caroverine in healthy men would impair their perception of neuroglycopenia and thereby diminish hormonal counter-regulation as well as symptoms of hypoglycaemia, as a model of stress.

Methods: In a balanced double-blind study, two hypoglycaemic clamp sessions (mean blood glucose 2.4 mmol/l for 50 min) were performed in ten healthy men during intravenous administration of 80 mg caroverine or placebo. We assessed concentrations of counter-regulatory hormones as well as subjective symptoms related to hypoglycaemia.

Results: AMPA receptor antagonisation by caroverine did not influence the perception of neuroglycopenic and autonomic hypoglycaemia-associated symptoms (p > 0.39 for all). Notwithstanding, caroverine did increase basal and counter-regulatory glucagon secretion (p < 0.002) and slightly enhanced counter-regulatory growth hormone concentrations (p = 0.07). Counter-regulatory release of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) did not differ between conditions (p > 0.11 for all).

Conclusions/interpretation: Antagonising AMPA receptor signalling by caroverine infusion failed to diminish and even slightly amplified counter-regulatory hormone release during hypoglycaemia in healthy men. The discrepancy with previous findings in rats may be due to different dosages or administration routes and calls for further investigations on the role of AMPA receptor signalling in hypoglycaemia counter-regulation in humans.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Epinephrine / blood
  • Glucagon / blood
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / blood
  • Hypoglycemia / drug therapy*
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Norepinephrine / blood
  • Quinoxalines / pharmacology
  • Quinoxalines / therapeutic use*
  • Receptors, AMPA / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Quinoxalines
  • Receptors, AMPA
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • Glucagon
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Norepinephrine
  • caroverine
  • Epinephrine