Chondrogenesis, joint formation, and articular cartilage regeneration

J Cell Biochem. 2009 Jun 1;107(3):383-92. doi: 10.1002/jcb.22149.


The repair of joint surface defects remains a clinical challenge, as articular cartilage has a limited healing response. Despite this, articular cartilage does have the capacity to grow and remodel extensively during pre- and post-natal development. As such, the elucidation of developmental mechanisms, particularly those in post-natal animals, may shed valuable light on processes that could be harnessed to develop novel approaches for articular cartilage tissue engineering and/or regeneration to treat injuries or degeneration in adult joints. Much has been learned through mouse genetics regarding the embryonic development of joints. This knowledge, as well as the less extensive available information regarding post-natal joint development is reviewed here and discussed in relation to their possible relevance to future directions in cartilage tissue repair and regeneration.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cartilage, Articular / cytology
  • Cartilage, Articular / physiology*
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chondrocytes / cytology*
  • Chondrocytes / physiology
  • Chondrogenesis*
  • Humans
  • Joints / embryology*
  • Joints / growth & development
  • Joints / physiology
  • Mice
  • Osteogenesis
  • Regeneration
  • Wound Healing