Myocardial infarction and stroke in early years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: risk factors and relation to self-monitoring of blood glucose

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009 Apr;11(4):234-41. doi: 10.1089/dia.2008.0062.

Abstract

Background: The natural course of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes was analyzed: what are the risk factors, and what is the relationship to the use of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG)?

Methods: Data were retrieved from ROSSO-a German retrospective observational study-which followed 3,268 patients from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes for 6.5 +/- 1.6 years. We compared patients with or without a nonfatal macrovascular event (myocardial infarction or stroke) and patients using or not using SMBG.

Results: At baseline, worse glycemic control and higher body mass index were not risk factors for macrovascular events. Moreover, there was no association with classic risk factors like blood pressure or total cholesterol. Overall, there was a higher incidence of stroke than of myocardial infarction (0.78% vs. 0.51%). Myocardial infarction was positively associated with male sex, and stroke with age (P < 0.001 for each). Patients using SMBG compared to patients not using SMBG had fewer myocardial infarctions (2.0% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.002) and strokes (3.6% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.005), experienced a stroke later after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (5.1 +/- 1.9 vs. 3.8 +/- 2.1 years, P < 0.001), and had a higher mean hemoglobin A1c in the years before a myocardial infarction (7.8 +/- 1.8% vs. 6.8 +/- 1.1%, P = 0.003) or a stroke (8.0 +/- 1.8% vs. 7.1 +/- 1.2%, P = 0.003). However, classic cardiovascular risk factors did not differ between patients using or not using SMBG.

Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes SMBG was associated with a lower event rate of myocardial infarction (-50%) and stroke (-37%), although at baseline the classic risk factors for macrovascular events were not different in both groups.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / blood
  • Myocardial Infarction / complications*
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Patient Compliance*
  • Risk Factors
  • Software
  • Stroke / blood
  • Stroke / complications*
  • Stroke / epidemiology
  • Time Factors

Substances

  • Glycated Hemoglobin A