The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia

Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009 Mar;36(1):187-200. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2009.02.003.


The relationship between cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known. Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by a series of precancerous changes, raising the possibility that like cervical cancer, anal cancer can be prevented. Further, given the known risk factors for anal cancer, prevention efforts could be targeted to high-risk groups, providing a unique example of a screening program targeted to high-risk individuals. This article describes the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer among men and women, as well as current efforts to prevent anal cancers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anal Canal / pathology*
  • Anal Canal / virology
  • Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Anus Neoplasms / etiology
  • Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • Colonoscopy / methods*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Human papillomavirus 11*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / complications
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / diagnosis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology*
  • United States / epidemiology