Outcome and extent of disability following Japanese encephalitis in Indonesian children

Int J Infect Dis. 2009 Nov;13(6):e389-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2009.01.009. Epub 2009 Apr 5.


Objectives: The study aimed to assess outcome, including level of disability, following Japanese encephalitis (JE) in children in Indonesia.

Methods: A cohort of children diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed JE from January 2005 to August 2006 was followed-up, with disability measured at least 4 months after discharge from hospital. An assessment tool that can be used to rapidly determine practical level of disability and the likelihood that a child will be able to live independently after illness, the Liverpool Outcome Score, was used.

Results: Of 72 children with JE, determination of outcome was possible for 65 (90%). Sixteen died in hospital or before follow-up assessment (25%). Sixteen children (25%) had severe sequelae, indicating their function was impaired enough to likely make them dependent. Five (7%) had moderate sequelae and 12 (18%) had minor sequelae. The remaining 16 children (25%) were considered to have recovered fully.

Conclusions: Half of the children with JE either died or were left with serious disabilities likely to impair their ability to lead independent lives, demonstrating the severe impact of JE. Immunization can effectively prevent JE, and an immunization program could avert some of the economic and social burden of JE disease in Indonesia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Disabled Children / statistics & numerical data
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / complications*
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / diagnosis*
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / mortality
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Motor Skills
  • Prognosis
  • Seizures / diagnosis
  • Self Care