Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is ubiquitously expressed growth factor that has profound effects on the growth and differentiation of many cell types and tissues, including cells of the central nervous system (CNS). IGF-1 is produced by a wide variety of cells and is found in many biological fluids including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). IGF-1 plays important role during CNS development and repair. IGF-1 has broad range neuroprotective effects and is a therapeutic candidate for Huntington's disease (HD). IGF-1 protects striatal neurons from the toxicity of mutated Huntington in vitro and improves neuronal survival in vivo in a phenotypic model of HD. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent dementia characterized by progressive loss of cognitive functions and by characteristic pathological changes in the brain: the formation of aggregates extracellularly by beta-amyloid (AB) peptide and intracellularly by tau proteins. Since cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is in contact with the extracellular space of the brain, biochemical brain modifications could be reflected in the CSF. IGFs in circulation and other physiological fluids are associated with a group of high-affinity binding proteins insulin like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) that specifically bind and modulate their bioactivity at the cellular level. The aim of this study was to determine the level of CSF and serum IGF-1 and IGFBPs concentrations in the patients with AD. CSF was obtained by lumbar puncture. The presence of IGF-1 and IGFBPs in the CSF and serum samples was confirmed by Western blot using anti-IGF-1 and IGFBPs antibodies. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), it was shown that the concentration of CSF and serum IGF-1 and IGFBPs in the patients with AD is higher than in normal control. The data from this study indicate that IGF-1 is a constant component of human CSF. It is also concluded that high levels of CSF IGF-1 may be partly related to AD pathophysiology.