Long-term follow-up after triple treatment of prostate cancer stage pT3

Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(3):186-91. doi: 10.1080/00365590902833887.


Objective: Radical prostatectomy (RP) has become the most common treatment for localized prostate cancer in Sweden. Outcome is extremely good for pT2 stage with Gleason score 6 or less, but more than every fourth operated patient will have a pT3 stage on full amount specimen histology. According to several reports the risk of biochemical recurrence is quite high, especially in stage pT3, on active surveillance after surgery alone. In 1994 the authors recognized this fact at their clinic and decided to apply a new multimodality treatment concept.

Material and methods: During 10 years, between 1 January 1995 and 1 January 2005, 98 pT3 patients were treated with a triple treatment: 8 months of neoadjuvant/adjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue treatment, RP and immediate adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) 3 months after RP. RT was delivered to 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the prostatic bed to all the patients. The cumulative risk of progression was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The impact of risk factors was evaluated by the Cox proportional hazard model.

Results: Ninety-eight (74 pT3a and 24 pT3b) patients were followed with a mean observation time from operation until October 2007 of 71.6 (median 65.5, range 35-146) months. The mean follow-up time to biochemical failure, death or last measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 57.8 (median 57.0, range 3-132) months. Fifteen patients out of 98 had experienced biochemical failure. Only Gleason score had an independent impact on the risk of PSA progression. Complications were mild and temporary and no serious adverse events were registered.

Conclusions: Patients with locally advanced prostate cancer have a high risk of progression after RP as single therapy. Postoperative RT has been shown to improve the outcome. Neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormonal therapy has been shown to improve the outcome after RT. Bringing this knowledge together offering a multimodality therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormonal therapy, RP followed by postoperative immediate RT seems to offer a high chance of biochemical-free survival.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Disease Progression
  • Flutamide / therapeutic use
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostatectomy
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Radiotherapy Dosage
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Flutamide