Indications for endoscopic ultrasound and diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration and cytology

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2009 Apr;19(4):223-7.


Objective: To determine common indications for requesting Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) and to describe the diagnosis made after endoscopic ultrasound/Fine-Needle Aspiration and Cytology (FNAC) during two years at a tertiary gastrointestinal unit.

Study design: Cross-sectional descriptive study.

Place and duration of study: The study was carried out in Gastrointestinal Department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from March 2006 to February 2008.

Methodology: One hundred and eighty nine patients who underwent EUS during study period at Military Hospital were included in the study. Patients too ill (hypoxemic/hypotensive) to undergo procedure safely and those with complete esophageal blockage at upper end by tumour not allowing scope/EUS probe to advance beyond were excluded. EUS was done with Olympus Exera EUS 160, linear or radial scope, as required. EUS findings were recorded against indications as enlarged lymph nodes, tumour, staging, normal or incomplete. Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) was done as per findings on EUS using 21-22 G needle. An on-site cytopathologist made the provisional cytopathological diagnosis. Final cytology/histopathology report was given after review of slides by consultant histopathologists at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, and were documented as tuberculosis, malignancy, chronic pancreatitis or reactive hyperplasia. Data was analyzed for documentation of patients' age, gender, common indications, findings on EUS/FNAC, using SPSS version 10. Percentages and frequencies were calculated for the presence of these above-mentioned variables.

Results: Of the 189 patients, 145 (77%) were male and 44 (23%) female. Age was 18-80 years (mean 49 years). Major indications for referral were lymphadenopathy in 92 (49%), suspected growth pancreas in 57 (28%), growth of stomach in 20 (11%) and a heterogeneous group included esophageal, liver, retroperitoneal masses, rectal and other pathologies. Findings on EUS included lymphadenopathy in 76, mostly in sub-carina and AP window. Mass in pancreas was seen in 36, followed by stomach tumour in 17 and esophagus in 9. FNAC was done in 142 out of 189 patients. Final diagnosis out of 67 FNAC/histopathology of lymph nodes were tuberculosis in 26 and malignant lesions in 23. These included metastatic adenocarcinoma in 8, lymphoproliferative disorder in 7, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in 5, small cell carcinoma in 2 and anaplastic in 1. Pancreatic tumours were adenocarcinoma in 16, poorly differentiated in 3 and neuroendocrine in 2. Stomach tumours were found in 11, and included lymphomas 5, GIST 3, carcinoids 2, metastatic choriocarcinoma 1 and adenocarcinoma in 1. Therapeutically, 3 celiac blocks and one pancreatic pseudocyst drainage was done.

Conclusion: The main indication of EUS and pathology of mediastinal and celiac nodes were metastatic malignancy and tuberculosis. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma was another common cause for asking EUS.

MeSH terms

  • Abdomen
  • Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis*
  • Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / secondary
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Endosonography / instrumentation
  • Endosonography / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Lymphatic Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Lymphatic Diseases / pathology
  • Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnostic imaging
  • Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • Male
  • Mediastinum
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Pancreatitis, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Pancreatitis, Chronic / diagnostic imaging
  • Pancreatitis, Chronic / pathology
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / diagnosis*
  • Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / diagnostic imaging
  • Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / pathology
  • Young Adult