Systems-level interactions between insulin-EGF networks amplify mitogenic signaling

Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:256. doi: 10.1038/msb.2009.19. Epub 2009 Apr 7.

Abstract

Crosstalk mechanisms have not been studied as thoroughly as individual signaling pathways. We exploit experimental and computational approaches to reveal how a concordant interplay between the insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling networks can potentiate mitogenic signaling. In HEK293 cells, insulin is a poor activator of the Ras/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) cascade, yet it enhances ERK activation by low EGF doses. We find that major crosstalk mechanisms that amplify ERK signaling are localized upstream of Ras and at the Ras/Raf level. Computational modeling unveils how critical network nodes, the adaptor proteins GAB1 and insulin receptor substrate (IRS), Src kinase, and phosphatase SHP2, convert insulin-induced increase in the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) concentration into enhanced Ras/ERK activity. The model predicts and experiments confirm that insulin-induced amplification of mitogenic signaling is abolished by disrupting PIP(3)-mediated positive feedback via GAB1 and IRS. We demonstrate that GAB1 behaves as a non-linear amplifier of mitogenic responses and insulin endows EGF signaling with robustness to GAB1 suppression. Our results show the feasibility of using computational models to identify key target combinations and predict complex cellular responses to a mixture of external cues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Synergism
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology*
  • GRB2 Adaptor Protein / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Insulin / pharmacology*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Mitogens / pharmacology*
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11 / metabolism
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*
  • Systems Biology*
  • ras Proteins / metabolism
  • src-Family Kinases / metabolism

Substances

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • GAB1 protein, human
  • GRB2 Adaptor Protein
  • GRB2 protein, human
  • Insulin
  • Mitogens
  • Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11
  • ras Proteins