Pigs have been recognized as an excellent biomedical model for investigating a variety of human health issues. We developed genetically modified pigs that exhibit the apparent symptoms of diabetes. Transgenic cloned pigs carrying a mutant human hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha gene, which is known to cause the type 3 form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young, were produced using a combined technology of intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Although most of the 22 cloned offspring obtained died before weaning, four pigs that lived for 20-196 days were diagnosed as diabetes mellitus with nonfasting blood glucose levels greater than 200 mg/dl. Oral glucose tolerance test on a cloned pig also revealed a significant increase of blood glucose level after glucose loading. Histochemical analysis of pancreas tissue from the cloned pigs showed small and irregularly formed Langerhans Islets, in which poor insulin secretion was detected.