Thermal ablation is an established treatment for tumors. The merging of newly developed imaging techniques has allowed precise targeting and real-time thermal mapping. This article provides an overview of the image-guided thermal ablation techniques in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Background on uterine fibroids, including epidemiology, histology, symptoms, imaging findings, and current treatment options, is first outlined. After describing the principle of magnetic resonance thermal imaging, we introduce the applications of image-guided thermal therapies, including laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, and in particular, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and how they apply to uterine fibroid treatment.