Background and aim: Adiponectin (ADPN) exerts anti-inflammatory and cardio protective effects and is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, however its role in patients with chronic kidney disease is unclear.
Methods and results: We investigated the correlation between plasma ADPN levels, the progression of CVD and CKD and the inflammatory gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients from the NephroPLIC study (a prospective study aimed at addressing the progression of cardiovascular damage in relation to kidney dysfunction). Plasma ADPN levels were directly correlated with age, HDL-C and creatinine, and inversely with BMI, triglycerides and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Multiple regression analysis identified plasma creatinine and HDL as the independent factors associated with ADPN plasma levels. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the mRNA expression of MCP-1, CD40, Cox-2, TLR4, PAI-1, TNF alpha, resistin and RAGE was up-regulated in the group with higher GFR and higher ADPN plasma levels compared to that with low GFR and ADPN plasma levels. Patients with similar GFR values showed no differences in the gene expression profile of PBMC although ADPN levels were associated with decreased CRP and IL-6 plasma levels and decreased IMT and heart left ventricular mass.
Conclusion: In CKD patients who are not in dialysis ADPN plasma levels are associated with a reduced renal excretory function, but correlate inversely with the determinants of the metabolic syndrome such as glucose, triglycerides and BMI, and directly with HDL. Furthermore, in patients with a similar degree of renal impairment, ADPN plasma levels are associated with a better cardiometabolic profile, despite no significant difference being observed in the gene expression pattern of PBMC.
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