Dual antiplatelet drug resistance is a risk factor for cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention

Clin Chem. 2009 Jun;55(6):1171-6. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2008.115089. Epub 2009 Apr 9.

Abstract

Background: Nonresponsiveness to clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a frequent result of platelet aggregometry studies, has unclear clinical and prognostic significance.

Methods: We performed impedance aggregometry in 182 patients 12-24 h after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel, adding 5 micromol/L ADP and 1 mg/L collagen to diluted whole blood to determine platelet inhibition by clopidogrel and ASA, respectively. Samples from nonresponders were incubated in vitro with methyl-S-adenosine monophosphate or ASA to distinguish between pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic types of resistance. We assessed a combined primary endpoint of myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, late stent thrombosis, or cardiac death.

Results: Nineteen patients (10.4%) were dual nonresponders (nonresponsive to both ASA and clopidogrel), and 163 patients (89.6%) were designated responders. The latter group also included 15 and 14 single nonresponders (responsive to either clopidogrel or ASA, respectively), who exhibited endpoint frequencies comparable to those of full responders (n = 134). Pharmacokinetic resistance was most prevalent. Primary endpoints occurred more frequently in dual nonresponders (n = 6, 31.6%) than in responders (n = 20, 12.3%) (relative risk 2.57; 95% CI 1.18-5.61; log-rank P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis confirmed dual nonresponsiveness (hazard ratio 2.9; 95% CI 1.17-7.2; P = 0.02) as an independent risk factor.

Conclusions: Dual nonresponders carry a high cardiovascular risk after PCI and should obtain intensified antiplatelet therapy and follow-up.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aspirin / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Clopidogrel
  • Cohort Studies
  • Drug Resistance
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Risk Factors
  • Ticlopidine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Ticlopidine / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Clopidogrel
  • Ticlopidine
  • Aspirin