Common blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) eligibility criteria include a minimum glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that may vary by regimen intensity. GFR is often estimated by measurement of creatinine clearance in a 24-hour urine collection (24-hr CrCl), an inconvenient and error-prone method that overestimates GFR. The study objectives were to determine which of 6 GFR calculations: Cockroft-Gault (CG), modified CG (mCG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 1 (MDRD1), MDRD2, Jelliffe, and Wright, consistently underestimated measured 24-hr CrCl pre-BMT. We retrospectively analyzed 98 consecutive allogeneic (n = 48) or autologous (n = 50) adult BMT patients from January 2006 to April 2007. All 6 formulas were significantly (P < .001) correlated with 24-hr CrCl with R = 0.64 (Wright), 0.63 (CG), 0.61 (mCG), 0.61 (Jelliffe), 0.54 (MDRD2), and 0.50 (MDRD1). When compared to the measured 24-hr CrCl, MDRD2 consistently underestimated it in the highest proportion of patients (66%, P < .001), compared with MDRD1 (65%, P < .001), Jelliffe (61%, P = NS), mCG (55%, P = NS), Wright (34%, P < .001), and CG (34%, P = .001). Measured 24-hr CrCl, pre-BMT serum Cr, and all 6 equations were not predictive of renal regimen-related toxicity (RRT) post-BMT. The Wright and CG formulas are closest to, but overestimate 24-hr CrCl in 66% of patients. In comparison, MDRD2 consistently underestimates 24-hr CrCl in 66%. Although MDRD2 is the most conservative formula, all 6 formulas gave reasonable estimates of GFR and any of the 6 equations can replace the measured 24-hr CrCl. Larger analyses and transplantation of patients with GFR <50 mL/min may better define subgroups at risk for renal RRT.