Clinical phenotype in systemic mastocytosis (SM) is markedly variable, which complicates prognostication and decision making regarding the choice and timing of therapy. In a retrospective study of 342 consecutive adult patients with SM seen at the Mayo Clinic between 1976 and 2007, disease subdesignation according to the World Health Organization (WHO) proposal was indolent (ISM) in 159 (46%), with associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) in 138 (40%), aggressive (ASM) in 41 (12%), and mast cell leukemia in 4 (1%). KITD816V was detected in bone marrow-derived DNA by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 68% of 165 patients evaluated (ISM, 78%; ASM, 82%; SM-AHNMD, 60%; P = .03); JAK2V617F was detected in 4%, all in SM-AHNMD. Compared with those with nonindolent SM, life expectancy in ISM was superior and not significantly different from that of the age- and sex-matched US population. In addition, multivariable analysis identified advanced age, weight loss, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and excess bone marrow blasts as independent adverse prognostic factors for survival. The current study validates the prognostic relevance of the WHO subclassification of SM and provides additional information of value in terms of both risk stratification and interpretation of clinical presentation and laboratory results.