Effect of a brief, regular telephone intervention by paraprofessionals for type 2 diabetes

J Behav Med. 2009 Aug;32(4):349-59. doi: 10.1007/s10865-009-9209-4. Epub 2009 Apr 14.


Brief, cost-effective interventions to promote diabetes self-management are needed. This study evaluated the effects of a brief, regular, proactive, telephone "coaching" intervention delivered by paraprofessionals on diabetes adherence, glycemic control, diabetes-related medical symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Therapeutic mechanisms underlying the intervention's effect on the primary outcomes were also examined. Adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (N = 62) were randomly assigned to receive the "coaching" intervention and treatment as usual, or only treatment as usual. The intervention increased frequency of exercise and feet inspection, improved diet, reduced diabetes medical symptoms, and lowered depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy, reinforcement, and awareness of self-care goals mediated the treatment effect on depression, exercise, and feet inspection, respectively. A brief telephone intervention delivered by paraprofessionals had positive effects on type 2 diabetes patients.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Allied Health Personnel*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Depression / prevention & control
  • Depression / psychology
  • Diabetes Complications / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / psychology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Diet
  • Exercise / psychology
  • Feeding Behavior / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Foot
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence / psychology
  • Middle Aged
  • Reinforcement, Psychology
  • Self Care*
  • Self Efficacy
  • Telephone*
  • Treatment Outcome