Comparative study of the effects of a 1-year dietary intervention of a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet on weight and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul;32(7):1147-52. doi: 10.2337/dc08-2108. Epub 2009 Apr 14.

Abstract

Objective: To compare the effects of a 1-year intervention with a low-carbohydrate and a low-fat diet on weight loss and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Research design and methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial of 105 overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. Primary outcomes were weight and A1C. Secondary outcomes included blood pressure and lipids. Outcome measures were obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months.

Results: The greatest reduction in weight and A1C occurred within the first 3 months. Weight loss occurred faster in the low-carbohydrate group than in the low-fat group (P = 0.005), but at 1 year a similar 3.4% weight reduction was seen in both dietary groups. There was no significant change in A1C in either group at 1 year. There was no change in blood pressure, but a greater increase in HDL was observed in the low-carbohydrate group (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, after 1 year a low-carbohydrate diet had effects on weight and A1C similar to those seen with a low-fat diet. There was no significant effect on blood pressure, but the low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater increase in HDL cholesterol.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00795691.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Weight / drug effects*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy
  • Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted*
  • Diet, Diabetic*
  • Diet, Fat-Restricted*
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Overweight / diet therapy
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Weight Loss

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipids
  • Lipoproteins, HDL

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00795691