Granzyme B: Correlates with protection and enhanced CTL response to influenza vaccination in older adults

Vaccine. 2009 Apr 21;27(18):2418-25. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.136. Epub 2009 Mar 3.


This study compared serum antibody titers and granzyme B (GrzB) levels in virus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells following influenza vaccination. Twelve of 239 older adults who subsequently developed laboratory-diagnosed influenza illness (LDI) had significantly lower GrzB levels compared to subjects without LDI (p=0.004). Eight subjects with LDI in the previous year showed an enhanced GrzB response to vaccination (p=0.02). Serum antibody titers following vaccination did not distinguish those older adults who developed LDI from those who did not. These results suggest that GrzB levels could be combined with antibody titers to more effectively predict vaccine efficacy in older adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Female
  • Granzymes / blood*
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • Vaccination


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Granzymes