Three-dimensional bioprinting of rat embryonic neural cells

Neuroreport. 2009 May 27;20(8):798-803. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32832b8be4.


We present a direct cell printing technique to pattern neural cells in a three-dimensional (3D) multilayered collagen gel. A layer of collagen precursor was printed to provide a scaffold for the cells, and the rat embryonic neurons and astrocytes were subsequently printed on the layer. A solution of sodium bicarbonate was applied to the cell containing collagen layer as nebulized aerosols, which allowed the gelation of the collagen. This process was repeated layer-by-layer to construct the 3D cell-hydrogel composites. Upon characterizing the relationship between printing resolutions and the growth of printed neural cells, single/multiple layers of neural cell-hydrogel composites were constructed and cultured. The on-demand capability to print neural cells in a multilayered hydrogel scaffold offers flexibility in generating artificial 3D neural tissue composites.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Artificial Organs
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Cell Aggregation / drug effects
  • Cell Aggregation / physiology
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / physiology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Collagen / pharmacology
  • Culture Media / chemistry
  • Culture Media / pharmacology
  • Extracellular Matrix / chemistry
  • Hydrogels / pharmacology
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Organ Culture Techniques
  • Printing / methods*
  • Rats
  • Spheroids, Cellular / cytology
  • Spheroids, Cellular / physiology
  • Stem Cells / cytology
  • Stem Cells / drug effects
  • Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Scaffolds / trends*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Culture Media
  • Hydrogels
  • Collagen