Background and purpose: Increases in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) augment the release/secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). As cAMP is hydrolysed by cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), we determined the role of PDEs and particularly PDE4 in regulating GLP-1 release.
Experimental approach: GLP-1 release, PDE expression and activity were investigated using rats and GLUTag cells, a GLP-1-releasing cell line. The effects of rolipram, a selective PDE4 inhibitor both in vivo and in vitro and stably overexpressed catalytically inactive PDE4D5 (D556A-PDE4D5) mutant in vitro on GLP-1 release were investigated.
Key results: Rolipram (1.5 mg x kg(-1) i.v.) increased plasma GLP-1 concentrations approximately twofold above controls in anaesthetized rats and enhanced glucose-induced GLP-1 release in GLUTag cells (EC(50) approximately 1.2 nmol x L(-1)). PDE4D mRNA transcript and protein were detected in GLUTag cells using RT-PCR with gene-specific primers and Western blotting with a specific PDE4D antibody respectively. Moreover, significant PDE activity was inhibited by rolipram in GLUTag cells. A GLUTag cell clone (C1) stably overexpressing the D556A-PDE4D5 mutant, exhibited elevated intracellular cAMP levels and increased basal and glucose-induced GLP-1 release compared with vector-transfected control cells. A role for intracellular cAMP/PKA in enhancing GLP-1 release in response to overexpression of D556A-PDE4D5 mutant was demonstrated by the finding that the PKA inhibitor H89 reduced both basal and glucose-induced GLP-1 release by 37% and 39%, respectively, from C1 GLUTag cells.
Conclusions and implications: PDE4D may play an important role in regulating intracellular cAMP linked to the regulation of GLP-1 release.