A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy comparison of 3C trituration derived and 4C trituration derived remedies

Homeopathy. 2008 Oct;97(4):196-201. doi: 10.1016/j.homp.2008.08.008.


Background: Trituration of base substances, commonly to the 3cH level, is the cornerstone of the homeopathic pharmaceutical process or insoluble solutions. Becker and Ehrler claim that trituration to 4cH gives a new, spiritual dimension to the homoeopathic medicine picture.

Aim and method: This study sought to establish whether the claim that C4-derived potencies possess different physicochemical qualities to the homoeopathic medicines derived from a 3cH trituration is valid. All potencies were produced by hand according to the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). Five different samples were analysed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy.

Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the 12cH samples of potassium dichromate (Kalium bichromicum) produced from 3cH and 4cH triturations. This was especially prominent in the chemical shift values of all four peaks and the relative integration levels of the H(2)O, OH and CH(3) peaks when comparing two sample groups.

Conclusion: Trituration plays a part in the development of physicochemical properties specific to homoeopathic medicines. The higher the level of trituration, the more pronounced is the alteration of the physical structure of the active ingredient. The study concludes that 4cH potencies are physicochemically distinct from 3cH-derived potencies (as currently employed).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Caustics / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Indicator Dilution Techniques*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*
  • Materia Medica*
  • Potassium Dichromate / pharmacology*


  • Caustics
  • Materia Medica
  • Potassium Dichromate